Artisanal cheeses and other fermented milk products have long been part of the diet of African rural communities. Cheese is a source of nutrients that are essential to the development and growth of children in rural areas, where intake of amino acids, vitamin A, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphate, and polyunsaturated fatty acids may be limited. Wara, Karish, Ayib, Takammart, Wagashi, Domiati, and Ras are prominent cheeses of African origin. Artisanal cheese making should be expanded to improve people’s nutritional status at low cost, stimulate the local economy, and empower small-scale farmers. This review firstly gives an overview of artisanal cheese production and consumption, and evaluates opportunities and challenges, while focusing on an African perspective. Secondly, it provides an insight into strategies that could improve cheese making at small-scale level. Possible areas of research and knowledge gaps are highlighted, particularly ways of improving cheese quality and safety.