Availability of agro-industrial by-product in the Cape provinces of South Africa and a review on their potential uses in animal feed

Author: R.S. Thomas, I.M.M. Malebana, T.D.E. Mpanza, T. Langa & B.D. Nkosi
Year: 2020
Issue: 1
Volume: 13
Page: 76 - 88

The objective of the study was to identify and quantify available agro-industrial by-products (AIB) that can be used by the resource-poor livestock farmers (RPLF) residing in the three Cape provinces of South Africa; the provinces are the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Northern Cape. Thirty-five food-producing factories, 12 in the Eastern Cape, 12 in the Western Cape and 11 in the Northern Cape were visited. Face to face, interviews with the factory managers were conducted to collect data using structured questionnaires. The results showed that the E. Cape is the highest producer of citrus pulp (± 1222 tons/week), and fruit and vegetable wastes (40 ton/week) compared to the other two provinces. Furthermore, the E. Cape is generating higher (P<0.05) (69 tons/week) biomass of by-products than the other two provinces. However, W. Cape had the highest (P<0.05) production of apple and pear pomace (154 tons/week) compared to the other two provinces. The N. Cape produces 46 tons/week of dry fruits from grapes and 75 tons/week of raisins and nuts. Some farmers around the provinces collect most of the by-products generated from the factories free (47%), 35% of which are collected by those who have contracts with the factories, 12% are sold, and the rest are either dumped (3%) or used as fertilizer (3%). Literature shows that these by-products are rich in nutrients (energy and or protein) hence they are a potential feed source. However, one major obstacle that hinders the use of these by-products as animal feeds by the RPLF is lack of transport and contract agreements from factories producing byproducts. Thus, technical assistant to the RPLF with the transport and contract agreements will allow a full exploitation of these by-products by the farmers for improved animal production and better quality products.

Keywords: carbohydrates, drying, energy, feeds, moisture, preservation
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