The JY-1 protein is oocyte specific, and is associated with folliculogenesis and early embryo development, and thus influences the chance of pregnancy. It was the first protein of maternal origin to be described for a single ovulating species, namely cattle. JY-1-like sequences corresponding to 3’ coding and the untranslated region have been reported in other vertebrate species. This is the first description of the partial JY-1 (exon 3 and 3’UTR) in a livestock species other than cattle and buffalo. The sequence was characterized in a panel of nine Indian goat breeds, which differ in reproductive traits (twinning percentage and age of sexual maturity). Forty three variations were recorded in the analysed region of goats JY-1 compared with cattle. Nucleotide variations in the codifying region of goats correspond to seven amino acid changes that could affect the biological function of the protein and possibly reproductive differences between goats (higher proportion of multiparous animals) and cattle (mainly uniparous). A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (C15329T) has been identified in Indian goats, which was genotyped in 272 animals from six breeds. Further studies to investigate other regions of the gene and its expression in goat female reproductive tissues would clarify the role of JY-1 in farm animal species that are not primarily uniparous.
"Experientia docet" - Experience is the best teacher