With the increasing shortages and costs of conventional protein-rich feedstuffs such as oilcakes and fish meal, and with the ever increasing cost of yellow maize, it was decided to investigate alternative protein and energy sources for use in cattle feedlot rations. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial arrangement. The 3 factors investigated consisted of 3 protein sources, 4 molasses levels and vitamin A injections. Twelve animals were slaughtered to estimate initial carcass mass and the remaining 120 animals were used in the feeding trial itself. Fish meal produced significantly superior rates of live plus carcass mass gain and feed conversion rates than either urea or artificially dried poultry layer manure (DPW). Urea, in turn, gave significantly better results than DPW. The replacement of maize meal by molasses at the 7% and 14% levels, on a dry matter basis, had no effect on the criteria measured, but it caused a highly significant depression in animal performance at the 21% level of replacement. This confirms previous reports that maize and molasses have similar energy values, when expressed on a dry matter basis, provided the molasses inclusion does not exceed approximately l4%. The vitamin A treatment had no effect on any of the criteria under investigation. It is thus evident that, with the increasing prices of grain as well as natural protein sources, and with the predicted shortages of both commodities, the use of molasses as an energy substitute for grain, and the inclusion of DPW and urea as a protein source, must receive more widespread recognition.