The aim of the present study was to determine the phenotypic correlations of backfat thickness with meatiness traits and intramuscular fat, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle of pigs. For this study, 60 barrows and 60 gilts (Pietrain × Duroc boars and Polish Large White crossbred sows) were slaughtered at 100 kg bodyweight. Lean meat percentage (LMP), loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness measured at five locations and average backfat thickness (ABF), and intramuscular fat (IMF), cholesterol (CHLM) and fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle were determined. Phenotypic correlations of individual backfat thickness measured at five locations and ABF with LMP, LMA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including C18 :2n-6, were negative and moderate to high, while with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), including C16:1 and C18:1 were positive and very low. Correlations of individual backfat thickness and ABF with saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and C16:0 were positive (0.29 to 0.56), while for C18:0 were low (0.10 to 0.23). Correlations of IMF and CHLM with LMP, LMA and PUFAs, especially C18:2n-6, were negative and high, while with SFAs and MUFAs were positive and moderate to high. Correlation between IMF and CHLM was high (0.74). The results of the present study indicate that increased IMF content results a significant decrease in carcass meatiness (LMP and LMA) and of PUFAs content and an increase in backfat thickness and contents of SFAs, MUFAs and CHLM.