Genes such as the Heart Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (H-FABP), the Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) and the Adipocyte Determination and Differentiation factor-1 (ADD1) play an important role in meat quality in pigs. The Meishan is one of the most prolific pig breeds in the world, but it is in danger, in China, of being replaced by other exotic pig breeds because of its slow growth rate and high body fat content. To know their present genetic status, the polymorphism of the three genes in the Meishan and four other pig populations (Sutai, Yorkshire x Sutai, Landrace x Sutai and Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire) in China was analysed, using PCR-RFLP and PCR-SSCP, and were further compared with each other. The results showed that gene and genotype frequencies differed significantly between the Meishan and the other four populations. This is suggested to be one of the reasons for the good meat quality of the Meishan compared to the other breeds. In addition, since half of the genetic background of Sutai is from the Meishan, results also indicated that marker assisted selection (MAS) is very important for the development of new pig breeds.