Six groups of 45 Karakul ewes were treated with 40 mg MAP sponges inserted for 15 days. Five of these groups also received 400 IV PMSG on the 13th day. All the ewes were inseminated 12 h after the onset of oestrus and again 9 to 10 h later, either artificially with 80 to 2000 x 106 spermatozoa in volumes of 0,2 or 0,5 ml or by natural service. One of the groups was inseminated at a fixed time 48 h subsequent to sponge withdrawal. The conception rates were 57,8% after AI and 68,6% following mating. The number of spermatozoa inseminated did not affect the conception rate but this was lower when the spermatozoa were in the higher volume of fluid. Spermatozoa were flushed from the tubes of 5 ewes in each group 24h after the first insemination and the numbers of sperm recovered was greater when large numbers had been inseminated. Cervical mucus was taken from one group and it was evident that the mucus became thicker as oestrus proceeded. The manipulation of the cervix to collect mucus appeared to reduce the conception rate in this group (40%).